By Hammad M. Cheema, Reza Mahmoudi, Arthur H.M. van Roermund
The promising excessive info cost instant functions at millimeter wave frequencies in most cases and 60 GHz specifically have received a lot recognition lately. even if, demanding situations relating to circuit, format and measurements in the course of mm-wave CMOS IC layout need to be conquer prior to they could turn into manageable for mass market.60-GHz CMOS Phase-Locked Loops concentrating on phase-locked loops for 60 GHz instant transceivers elaborates those demanding situations and proposes strategies for them. The process point layout to circuit point implementation of the total PLL, in addition to separate implementations of person parts reminiscent of voltage managed oscillators, injection locked frequency dividers and their mixtures, are incorporated. additionally, to fulfill a few transceiver topologies at the same time, flexibility is brought within the PLL structure through the use of new dual-mode ILFDs and switchable VCOs, whereas reusing the low frequency parts on the related time.
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Extra resources for 60-GHz CMOS Phase-Locked Loops
An example of this is shown in Fig. 16 where the blue samples correspond to the original calibration result and the green samples refer to the calibration validity checked after approx. 7 min have elapsed. The latter shows that the percentage variation in s-parameters is above the acceptable level especially beyond 40 GHz. The slight jump at 40 GHz is attributed to the non-ideal behaviour of a differential to single-ended hybrid which has an upper frequency range of 40 GHz. The wear and tear of the ISS due to repetitive contact degrades the calibration quality and using damaged samples does not provide acceptable error percentages in most cases.
13a, the probe-tips are not in-line in y-direction giving rise to mismatch in the measured differential output. In Fig. 13b, the probe-tips are not aligned in the z-direction, due to which one of the differential outputs does not have reliable contact to the bond-pad. This allows common-mode noise to pass and corrupt the measured output. l Only cables, connectors and adapters suitable for mm-wave frequencies should be used in measurements. Smaller wavelengths demand smaller dimensions of the cables and connectors in order to circumvent excitation of circular propagation modes.
The loop bandwidth of 4 MHz forms the “knee” in the phase noise curve. The in-band phase noise, say at 100 kHz is dominated by PFD and charge pump and is about À110 dBc/Hz whereas out-ofband noise, say at 30 MHz is dominated by the VCO and is À128 dBc/Hz. These values provide a first estimate about the expected phase noise performance. However, the simulation does not include all noise mechanisms which are present at circuit level. Similar simulations are carried out with a 60 GHz front-end by replacing the VCO and modifying the overall division ratio.
60-GHz CMOS Phase-Locked Loops by Hammad M. Cheema, Reza Mahmoudi, Arthur H.M. van Roermund