By Nicholas A. Hopkins
The lexical facts mentioned during this Chuj-English dictionary have been accrued in the course of my
dissertation box paintings in 1964-65. My first publicity to the Chuj language used to be in 1962, whilst I
went to Huehuetenango with Norman A. McQuown and Brent Berlin to collect facts on the
languages of the Cuchumatanes (Berlin et al. 1969). on the time i used to be a graduate scholar at the
University of Texas, hired as a study assistant at the collage of Chicago's Chiapas
Study initiatives, directed by means of McQuown (McQuown and Pitt-Rivers 1970). operating via the
Maryknoll monks who have been then the Catholic clergy within the indigenous parts of Huehuetenango
and somewhere else in Guatemala, we recorded fabric, often within the kind of 100-word Swadesh
lists (for glottochronology), from a number of languages. The pattern integrated audio system of the
Chuj number of San Mateo Ixtatán (including the guy who used to be later to develop into my major
In the Spring of 1962, as box paintings for the venture wound down, I back to Austin to
finish drafting my Master's thesis, after which went directly to Chicago to start graduate experiences in
Anthropology on the college of Chicago, with McQuown as my significant professor. I continued
to paintings on Chiapas undertaking fabrics in McQuown's information, and in 1963 he assigned me the
Chuj language because the subject of my upcoming doctoral dissertation. Over the subsequent educational 12 months I
transcribed and analyzed the Chuj fabrics we had accrued and ready initial analyses
of the phonology and morphology of the language.
At the top of the summer season of 1964, with aid from a countrywide safety schooling Act
Foreign Language Fellowship, I went to Huehuetenango to start box paintings on Chuj. via the end
of August I had reduced in size an informant (Francisco Santizo Andrés) and rented a home in
Huehuetenango, and we begun paintings in earnest. From then till September of 1965 we worked
an eight-hour day, six days per week, with occasional breaks whilst Francisco could cross domestic and I
would visit San Cristóbal de Las Casas, the place Berlin and different anthropologists and linguists
were engaged on their very own projects.
We begun through reviewing my initial analyses and correcting my error of
transcription, in addition to my phonemic research. even as Francisco discovered to transcribe
Chuj within the technical orthography that we used on the time (using ¢ for the alveolar affricate, c
with hachek for the alveopalatal affricate, x for the velar fricative, etc.). through the years I elicited
Terry Kaufman's Mayan Vocabulary Survey checklist (a roughly 1400-item questionnaire
covering easy vocabulary for Mesoamerican languages), and a Monosyllable Dictionary. The
latter, it sounds as if designed via Kaufman for the Chicago tasks, took benefit of the CVC
shape of so much Mayan roots, and concerned producing the checklist of attainable CVC combos and
attempting to elicit vocabulary in line with each one. One benefit of this system is that it elicits
vocabulary that will differently now not take place to both the informant or the investigator, including
onomatopoetic kinds in addition to not often heard lexical iterms. We additionally started to list narratives.
Francisco could dictate a textual content to the tape recorder, operated by means of me, after which transcribe the tape
(see Hopkins 1980b). i'd pass over the transcriptions and ask questions about the grammar
and lexicon. all of the lexical fabric accrued by means of those concepts used to be wear three x five slips and filed
in the lexical dossier that's the foundation for the current dictionary.
In February of 1965, the botanist Dennis E. Breedlove, who used to be operating in Chiapas with
Brent Berlin on Tzeltal ethnobotany (see Berlin, Breedlove and Raven 1974, Breedlove 1981),
came to Huehuetenango to gather crops within the Cuchumatanes, together with particularly the Chujspeaking
region, the place there has been vast cloud wooded area. We accrued for 2 days close to San
Juan Ixcoy and the Captzin rocks, after which went directly to San Mateo Ixtatán for 4 extra days.
Francisco and Dennis accumulated the specimens and Dennis recorded the botanical information,
including the locality, altitude, and so forth. and feedback at the crops. Francisco and that i recorded the Chuj
names of the vegetation and their ethnobotanical class (in phrases of the types 'anh, te',
ch'anh, and 'ixim). in line with my box notes we amassed 1328 specimens in that box session
(Br 8465-9793). those information went into my lexical slip records, and the result of this and other
collecting journeys have been later released (Breedlove and Hopkins 1970-71). The botanical IDs from
that book are integrated during this dictionary.
In may perhaps of 1965 Francisco and that i performed a two-week dialect survey of the world in
which San Mateo Ixtatán Chuj was once spoken, within the municipios of San Mateo Ixtatán and Nentón,
collecting fabric from 17 aldeas and town heart, a complete of 27 questionnaires. numerous texts
were recorded in this box season, and as traditional, the transcribed fabric was once incorporated
into my lexical records. on the finish of this dialect survey Francisco and that i accrued extra plant
specimens (H 0001-0038).
The number of plant names encouraged me to gather animal names in addition, and to take
notes on their local type. Absent box paintings at the undertaking, we consulted reference
books, together with Ibarra's Mamíferos de Guatemala, Alvarez del Toro's Reptiles de Chiapas, and
Peterson's box courses to the birds. some of the names were accrued throughout the Mayan
Vocabulary Survey elicitation or the Monosyllable Dictionary. within the strategy of recording this
information, i started to discover the Chuj approach of gender markers that partitioned the animals
into coherent periods, and Francisco went in the course of the lexical records and further the gender markers
to the slips. the result of this research have been released within the ill-fated magazine of Mayan
Linguistics (Hopkins 1980a).
In Guatemala urban I had obtained the topographical maps for the area of
Huehuetenango (Dirección normal de Cartografía, 1963; see box Notes, 6-12 September,
1964) and Francisco and that i pored over the maps position via position as I recorded the Chuj names,
most of which have been garbled within the Spanish types (the locative yich, 'base of', for example, was
almost unavoidably transcribed Ix-). i finally brought to the Instituto Nacional de Geografía
and to the Instituto Indigenista Nacional a corrected record, for what that was once worthy. My research of
the formation of Chuj position names used to be later publshed (Hopkins 1972), and the entire position names
were extra to my lexical records. The Spanish position names mentioned listed here are the authentic names, as
registered within the Diccionario geográfico de Guatemala (Dirección common de Cartografía 1961-
A graduate pupil in Geology from LSU was once residing in Huehuetenango in 1964-65, and
he pointed out a few of the rocks and minerals we had names for. For the result of his learn and
related paintings within the Cuchumatanes by way of him and his colleagues, see Blount 1967 and Anderson et
In August of 1965, Dennis Breedlove and Brent Berlin got here to Guatemala to collect
plants and talk about additional initiatives. With Francisco's support, they accumulated close to Antigua and then
again within the Chuj sector, all jointly one other 292 specimens (Br 11397-11689). Brent and that i met
with Chris Day, one other Chicago graduate pupil (in the sector engaged on Jacaltec whereas I was
working on Chuj, see Day 1973), a couple of comparative research of numeral classifiers within the three
languages, Tzeltal, Jacaltec and Chuj. Over the following few years we collaborated in a preliminary
project, yet by no means introduced it to fruition. The plan was once for Chris to collect and examine the
vocabularies, Brent to write down up the semantics (as in his 1964 and 1968 monographs), and for me
to learn the grammars. basically the grammatical research reached book (Hopkins 1970).
However, the entire info I had generated in regards to the Chuj numeral classifiers went into my
I lower back to Chicago in September, 1965, to complete my graduate paintings and my doctoral
dissertation (Hopkins 1967). I then took a role instructing Anthropology on the college of Texas
in Austin, and endured to method my Chuj fabrics. I married Kathryn Josserand in 1970 and
spent a 12 months in Milwaukee, the place she have been educating, after which back to Texas. In 1973 we
left Texas for Mexico urban, on the invitation of Angel Palerm to set up the Programa de
Lingüística on the new Centro de Investigaciones Superiores del INAH that he directed (now
CIESAS, the Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social). paintings on
Chuj used to be deserted in desire of box education and study on languages toward Mexico City,
especially Otomanguean languages. many years later, simply because we had began to stick with the
developments in Maya epigraphy, we started to paintings on Mayan languages back, yet box work
was on Chol, no longer Chuj.
I didn't go back to paintings on Chuj until eventually 2005-6, whilst I obtained a countrywide Endowment for
the Humanities Documenting Endangered Languages Fellowship. This fellowship allowed me to
prepare my Chuj fabrics for digitization and archiving on the Archive of the Indigenous
Languages of Latin the USA (AILLA, www.ailla.utexas.org). Now, in 2012, all my recorded
materials on Chuj are archived. besides my transcribed box Notes and box photographs, a
revised model of my dissertation, rewritten in smooth sensible orthography, will whole this
The assortment comprises the entire recorded and transcribed Chuj texts, a few forty samples of
Chuj speech from 8 Chuj settlements, a few of which now not exist. greater than twenty of
the settlements said right here as position names have been deserted or destroyed within the genocide of the
so-called civil warfare (Manz 1988:83-89). it truly is my purpose so as to add to the AILLA archive collection
much of my written fabric in addition, together with huge notes made whereas discussing grammar
and lexicon with Francisco Santizo Andrés. All this fabric is to be freely on hand to anyone
interested, and an digital model of the current Dictionary might be extra to the collection.
In the summer time of 2011, I dug out of a closet a wood chest that contained 4 drawers
of lexical slip documents, untouched because approximately 1970. Over the following few months I transcribed the
lexical entries into an digital textual content dossier, rewriting the orthography into the now authentic Chuj
script (Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala, 1988). i've got tried to ensure that those materials
include the entire facts on plant and animal names, position names, numeral classifiers, etc., that I had
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Extra resources for A DICTIONARY OF THE CHUJ (MAYAN) LANGUAGE
Guardian. Ex: 'ilwajumin, I'm the guardian. 'ilwih, vin. , as a guardian. Ex: tz'ilwih, He's watching. tzin 'ilwih, I'm watching. 'ilah, exclam. Take this! Said by a person giving anything to another person. The response is kitoh. 'ilyah, n. Illness, harm, mishap. Ex: yilyah, his illness (from which he suffers). yilyahil chonhap', an illness that strikes a whole town. mama 'ilyah hach 'ik'anih, Did no mishap befall you? 'im, n. Breast. Ex: yim, her/his/its breast. *yimal. 'ina'ih, exclam. Look!
To hear or feel. 'ap'ajih, vin (vtr pas). To be heard. = 'ap'jih. 'ap'elih, vin-dir. To learn something. = 'ilelih. 'ap'jih, vin (vtr pas). To be heard. = 'ap'ajih. 'ap'lej, vtr. To sample something, especially food. Ex: 'ap'lej, Try it! wap'lej, I sample it (food). 'ap'wih + N, vin (vtr + incorporated object). To listen to N. Ex: 'ap'wih lolonel, to listen to a conversation. NB: In these constructions, the object noun is unstressed. 'ap'ix, n. A notice, summons to a meeting to discuss an affair.
Persea sp. tzitz 'onh, n (te'). Plant name. A small variety of avocado, 1-2" in length, with a thin skin. Persea americana, var. drymifolia. 'onhala', n (lum). Place name: Onalá, a caserío of Jolomtenam, San Mateo. 'onhkoy, n (nok'; 'ajtzo', 'ix). Turtle (any variety). 'opisyal, n (winh). An official of the municipality. " Ex: yopisyal, his employee; yopisyalil 'alkal, the Alcalde's official. 'opísyuh, n. An office (post) in the municipality. " Ex: yopísyuh, his office. how he will pass (serve in) the office...
A DICTIONARY OF THE CHUJ (MAYAN) LANGUAGE by Nicholas A. Hopkins