By William D. Davies
Madurese is a tremendous local language of Indonesia, with a few 14 million audio system, frequently at the island of Madura and adjoining components of Java, making it the fourth biggest language of Indonesia after Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese. there's no present complete descriptive grammar of the language, with present reviews being both sketches of the total grammar, or specified descriptions of phonology and morphology or a few specific issues inside those elements of the grammar. there's no competing paintings that gives the breadth and intensity of insurance of this grammar, particularly (though no longer solely) in regards to syntax.
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Additional resources for A Grammar of Madurese (Mouton Grammar Library 50)
2. Although they have a widespread distribution, the high central vowels [ɨ] and [ɤ] are arguably not phonemic. Rather, they are allophones of [ə] and [a], respectively. 4, the distinction between [ə] and [ɨ] is not universally recognized in the literature; however, acoustic analysis does support the difference (Cohn & Lockwood 1994, Bortscheller 2007). 5 The symbol [ɤ] is used here to ensure consistency with the con5 My thanks to Jill Beckman for help interpeting the acoustic measurements. Pawitra (2009) uses , a low central vowel, for pronunciations in his dictionary.
Mpɔl] [t. 2. Vowels Many vowel correspondences between Madurese and Indonesian are quite regular because the quality of the Madurese vowel is conditioned by a rule of vowel raising in which high vowels occur after aspirated and voiced stops and mid and low vowels elsewhere. (The process and the limited exceptions are discussed more fully in section 4). Because the surface form is more revealing in the case of vowels, phonetic representations of Madurese and Indonesian are compared here. These correspondences include instances in which Madurese has a mid vowel because of the preceding conditioning environment.
Pa] [d. ɤtə] [sapɛḍɤ] [t. ɤmpɔl] [t. 2. Vowels Many vowel correspondences between Madurese and Indonesian are quite regular because the quality of the Madurese vowel is conditioned by a rule of vowel raising in which high vowels occur after aspirated and voiced stops and mid and low vowels elsewhere. (The process and the limited exceptions are discussed more fully in section 4). Because the surface form is more revealing in the case of vowels, phonetic representations of Madurese and Indonesian are compared here.
A Grammar of Madurese (Mouton Grammar Library 50) by William D. Davies