By Grant E. Isaac
Genetically changed (GM) agricultural plants that are licensed as secure in North the USA (Canada and the U.S.) are dealing with major regulatory hurdles in having access to the eu Union. the advance and commercialization of GM vegetation illustrate a posh problem dealing with alternate international relations - the problem of regulatory regionalism created via social regulatory obstacles.
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Extra info for Agricultural Biotechnology and Transatlantic Trade: Regulatory Barriers to GM Crops (Cabi Publishing)
In fact, in North America, improved output traits made up less than 1% of total acreage of GM crops in 1997, 1998 and 1999 (James, 2000), in part because the bulk nature of the agricultural commodity distribution system makes it difficult to ensure segregation between the desired varieties and other varieties without some sort of price premium. The third broad type of agricultural biotechnology application is to create bioengineered products. Brenner (1998) suggests that, with bioengineered products, ‘the power of sunlight and plant physiology are harnessed to replace expensive chemical synthesis processes’.
Functionality can also include enhanced processing characteristics, such as ease of separation of fibres, oils, starches, sugars and proteins (Brenner, 1998), where increased processing ease would translate into decreased energy requirements (Bonny, 1999). Similarly to the production-trait applications, output-trait applications do not require the adoption of new agronomic practices or massive investment in new agricultural implements. These varieties may be produced according to traditional agronomic practices.
Hence, the general tendency is to support regulations that encourage technological precaution and which are capable of responding to broader social concerns about new technology beyond just the potential economic benefits (Beck, 1992). In short, the social-rationality view is that technology brings change, but change disrupts the normative framework, such that precaution must be exercised before embracing technological change. Contrasting the two perspectives, then, the social perspective supports social rationality and technological precaution over the scientific rationality and technological progress supported by the economic perspective.
Agricultural Biotechnology and Transatlantic Trade: Regulatory Barriers to GM Crops (Cabi Publishing) by Grant E. Isaac