By Jeffrey Scott Vitter
Facts units in huge purposes are usually too significant to slot thoroughly contained in the computer's inner reminiscence. The ensuing input/output verbal exchange (or I/O) among speedy inner reminiscence and slower exterior reminiscence (such as disks) could be a significant functionality bottleneck. Algorithms and knowledge buildings for exterior reminiscence surveys the cutting-edge within the layout and research of exterior reminiscence (or EM) algorithms and knowledge buildings, the place the aim is to use locality and parallelism which will lessen the I/O expenditures. numerous EM paradigms are thought of for fixing batched and on-line difficulties successfully in exterior reminiscence. Algorithms and information constructions for exterior reminiscence describes numerous beneficial paradigms for the layout and implementation of effective EM algorithms and information buildings. the matter domain names thought of comprise sorting, permuting, FFT, medical computing, computational geometry, graphs, databases, geographic info structures, and textual content and string processing. Algorithms and knowledge buildings for exterior reminiscence is a useful reference for anyone attracted to, or engaging in study within the layout, research, and implementation of algorithms and knowledge constructions.
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Extra resources for Algorithms and Data Structures for External Memory (Foundations and Trends(R) in Theoretical Computer Science)
In the early 1970s, Knuth  did an extensive study of sorting using magnetic tapes and (to a lesser extent) magnetic disks. At about the same time, Floyd [165, 220] considered a disk model akin to PDM for D = 1, P = 1, B = M/2 = Θ(N c ), where c is a constant in the range 0 < c < 1. For those particular parameters, he developed optimal upper and lower I/O bounds for sorting and matrix transposition. Hong and Kung  developed a pebbling model of I/O for straightline computations, and Savage and Vitter  extended the model to deal with block transfer.
Most of the algorithms we mention run in optimal CPU time, at least for the single-processor case. There are interesting issues associated with optimizing internal computation time in the presence of multiple disks, in which communication takes place over a particular interconnection network, but they are not the focus of this manuscript. Ideally algorithms and data structures should use linear space, which means O(N/B) = O(n) disk blocks of storage. 2 Practical Modeling Considerations Track size is a ﬁxed parameter of the disk hardware; for most disks it is in the range 50 KB–2 MB.
PDM is a good generic programming model that facilitates elegant design of I/O-eﬃcient algorithms, especially when used in conjunction with the programming tools discussed in Chapter 17. More complex and precise disk models, such as the ones by Ruemmler and Wilkes , Ganger , Shriver et al. , Barve et al. , Farach-Colton et al. , and Khandekar and Pandit , consider the eﬀects of features such as disk buﬀer caches and shared buses, which can reduce the time per I/O by eliminating or hiding the seek time.
Algorithms and Data Structures for External Memory (Foundations and Trends(R) in Theoretical Computer Science) by Jeffrey Scott Vitter