By Michael Thomas
This ebook explains the institutionalization of approximately unconditional American aid of Israel throughout the Reagan management, and its endurance within the first Bush management by way of the contest of trust platforms in American society and politics. Michael Thomas explains coverage adjustments through the years and offers insights into what situations could result in lasting alterations in coverage. the quantity identifies the $64000 household, social, spiritual and political parts that experience vied for primacy on coverage in the direction of Israel, and utilizing case experiences, akin to the 1981 AWACS sale and the 1991 personal loan promises, argues that coverage debates were struggles to embed and implement ideals approximately Israel and approximately Arabs. It additionally establishes a framework for greater realizing the affects and constraints on American coverage in the direction of Israel. An epilogue applies the teachings discovered to the present Bush management. American coverage towards Israel can be of curiosity to scholars people overseas coverage, heart japanese politics and diplomacy.
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Additional resources for American Policy toward Israel: The Power and Limits of Beliefs
Israeli consuls in New York, Boston and Philadelphia called Breira leaders and warned them against giving “aid and comfort to the enemy” (Wertheimer 1996: 405). Within a year, Breira held its first and only policy conference, at which Jewish Defense League toughs broke in and assaulted attendees, and Breira was gone (Rosenthal 2001: 39). Rabin told American Jewish leaders, “There is no Breira” (Wertheimer 1996: 405–6). The history of Breira is instructive precisely because this small organization was neither particularly radical nor any credible threat to Israel.
Its policy of seeking the maximum possible economic and military assistance and the greatest possible freedom of political action for Israel had since 1977 enabled the Revisionist policies of the Likud. As of 1981, no effective opposition to AIPAC existed, either in the Jewish community or in Congress. 3 Pro-Israel policy networks and the congressional playing field Introduction The election of Ronald Reagan in 1980 marked an historic shift in governing assumptions. Reagan was the first president who combined social and fiscal conservatism, ardent anti-communism and identification with the Christian Right.
He was supported by the Presidents Conference, organized labor and an ad hoc interfaith group, but all deferred to AIPAC. The government of Israel was initially split, with Foreign Minister Dayan urging opposition to the sale and Defense Minister Weizman arguing they should seek compensation. Prime Minister Begin vacillated, but finally favored the opponents (Goldberg 1990: 68). : 66). The The pro-Israel community prior to 1981 27 administration avoided a legislative veto, in part by adding 20 F-15s to the package for Israel.
American Policy toward Israel: The Power and Limits of Beliefs by Michael Thomas